Choices available for implementing smart grid communication network


Communication network is considered to be a vital component and cornerstone of smart grids. It is envisaged that design of communication network will be the most challenging task for transforming ageing power grid into a modern smart grid. Many communication technologies existing today can be utilized for enabling communication among smart grid entities, however, each one of them has its own tradeoffs which needs to be considered. Hierarchically, smart grid communication network is made up of three area networks each having its own requirements and limitations. It is, therefore, necessary to analyze the communication technologies in perspective of these three area networks of smart grids. This paper presents the choices available for enabling communication in respective area networks of smart grids. Moreover, performances of IEEE 802.11 and IEEE 802.15.4 standards are evaluated using NS-2 simulations for deployment of multi-hop ad-hoc architecture of smart grid communication network.

Performance Analysis of AODV Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network based Smart Metering


Today no one can deny the need for Smart Grid and it is being considered as of utmost importance to upgrade outdated electric infrastructure to cope with the ever increasing electric load demand. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is considered a promising candidate for inter networking of smart meters with the gateway using mesh topology. This paper investigates the performance of AODV routing protocol for WSN based smart metering deployment. Three case studies are presented to analyze its performance based on four metrics of (i) Packet Delivery Ratio, (ii) Average Energy Consumption of Nodes (iii) Average End-End Delay and (iv) Normalized Routing Load.

Health, link quality and reputation aware routing protocol (HLR-AODV) for Wireless Sensor Network in Smart Power Grid


One of the important issues in Smart Power Grid (SPG) is the design of communication network that provides energy efficient and reliable two way communications of smart meters in power grid topology. Due to low cost and collaborative nature, Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has been considered a promising technology for data communications in SPG. This Research focuses on routing in SPG WSN. A new routing protocol HLR-AODV is proposed to provide energy efficient and reliable communication of smart meters with self healing characteristics. Real world SPG home topologies will be used as case study to analyze the performance of the proposed routing protocol based on three metrics of (i) Packet Delivery Ratio, (ii) Packet Loss Ratio and (iii) Energy Consumption for periodic meters readings delivery as well for node failure scenarios.

Performance analysis of ad-hoc routing protocols in smart metering infrastructure


Smart Metering Infrastructure is an integral part of the Smart Power Grid Revolution. Wireless Ad-hoc Network is considered a promising candidate for enabling smart metering communications. This paper investigates which kind of Ad-hoc routing scheme (proactive, reactive and hybrid) will be most suitable for Smart Metering Infrastructure. Simulation studies utilizing three different topologies are conducted to analyze the performance of the protocols and relative comparison is provided based on four metrics of (i) Packet Delivery Ratio, (ii) Average Energy Consumption of Nodes (iii) Average End-End Delay and (iv) Normalized Routing Load.

Energy, Traffic Load, and Link Quality Aware Ad Hoc Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network Based Smart Metering Infrastructure


Electricity industry is in the midst of revolutionary transition from outdated ageing power infrastructure to an intelligent sophisticated smart grid network utilizing modern communication technologies to enhance power generation, transmission, distribution, and consumption. Smart metering infrastructure is an integral part of the smart power grid revolution. Smart meters, in addition to their primary billing functions, serve as distributed Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) nodes for enhancing grid reliability. Existing ad hoc routing protocols are based on single routing criterion such as hop count. This single routing metric approach can overload and deplete resource constrained smart meters along preferred paths. A protocol is needed which is aware of energy level and traffic congestion of smart metering nodes. In addition, protocol should select route based on link quality for optimal routing. In this paper, a novel WSN ad hoc routing protocol ETL-AODV is proposed for reliable and energy efficient communication of smart metering nodes. Three simulation based case studies are conducted to analyze the performance of the proposed protocol, and relative comparison is provided based on four metrics: (i) packet delivery ratio (PDR), (ii) normalized routing load (NRL) (iii) average energy consumption and (iv) average end-to-end delay.

Multi metric on-demand ad-hoc routing protocol for wireless smart metering deployment


Wireless smart metering is one of the modern innovative technologies aimed for energy sustainability. Smart meters installed at homes can supply electricity companies with power usage statistics in real time for reliable energy supply. Ad-hoc network is considered a potential candidate for deployment of smart metering communication network. Ad-hoc routing using classical hop count criterion proves to be inefficient for smart metering scenario. Thus a new multi metric on-demand ad-hoc routing protocol is proposed for reliable communication in resource constrained smart meters. Simulation results presented in this paper indicate our protocol outperforms classical Ad-hoc routing protocol (AODV) for smart metering deployment.

Smart Grids

Hasan Farooq